Zeekurity Zen – Part VIII: How to Send Zeek Logs to Elastic

Zeekurity Zen – Part VIII: How to Send Zeek Logs to Elastic

This is part of the Zeekurity Zen Zeries on building a Zeek (formerly Bro) network sensor.

Overview

In our Zeek journey thus far, we’ve:

In Part III, we sent our Zeek logs to Splunk and unlocked a new level of analysis and visualization capabilities.  But what if we don’t have access to Splunk? What if instead of Splunk, we use Elastic?

For those new to Elastic, the “Elastic Stack” or “ELK Stack” is a popular open source data analytics platform.  Elastic has become increasingly popular not just because it offers a free tier but also through the addition of significant security-focused features and an active user community.

Fortunately for us, Elastic natively supports Zeek logs and is a great way to analyze and visualize Zeek data.

To do this, we’ll walkthrough these steps:

  1. Configure Zeek to output logs in JSON format.
  2. Install and configure Filebeat to consume Zeek logs.
  3. Write simple Kibana queries.

Output Zeek logs to JSON

  1. Stop Zeek if it is currently running.
    zeekctl stop
  2. Edit /opt/zeek/share/zeek/site/local.zeek and add the following.
    # Output to JSON
    @load policy/tuning/json-logs.zeek
  3. Restart Zeek and view the logs in /opt/zeek/logs/current to confirm they are now in JSON format.
    zeekctl deploy
    cd /opt/zeek/logs/current
    less conn.log

Configure Filebeat

This guide assumes you have already installed Filebeat. If not, refer to Elastic’s documentation and then come back here when you’re done.

  1. Switch back to your normal user.
    su eric
  2. Stop Filebeat if it is currently running.
    sudo systemctl stop filebeat
  3. Enable Filebeat’s Zeek module.
    sudo filebeat modules enable zeek
  4. Setup Filebeat assets.
    sudo filebeat setup -e
  5. Add Zeek’s log paths (e.g., /opt/zeek/logs/current/http.log) to the Zeek Filebeat configuration file. Assuming you installed Filebeat from the standard Elastic repositories, the configuration file will be in /etc/filebeat/modules.d/zeek.yml. For each log type you want to capture:
    • Set the enabled field to true.
    • Set the var.paths field to the log’s specific path.

    The sample configuration file below enables all log types currently available in the Filebeat Zeek module. Note that while the “signature” log type is listed, it is currently not available and will result in an error if enabled. This Github issue discusses this in further detail.

    # Module: zeek
    # Docs: https://www.elastic.co/guide/en/beats/filebeat/7.x/filebeat-module-zeek.html
    - module: zeek
      capture_loss:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/capture_loss.log"]
      connection:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/conn.log"]
      dce_rpc:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/dce_rpc.log"]
      dhcp:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/dhcp.log"]
      dnp3:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/dnp3.log"]
      dns:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/dns.log"]
      dpd:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/dpd.log"]
      files:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/files.log"]
      ftp:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/ftp.log"]
      http:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/http.log"]
      intel:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/intel.log"]
      irc:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/irc.log"]
      kerberos:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/kerberos.log"]
      modbus:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/modbus.log"]
      mysql:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/mysql.log"]
      notice:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/notice.log"]
      ntlm:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/ntlm.log"]
      ntp:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/ntp.log"]
      ocsp:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/oscp.log"]
      pe:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/pe.log"]
      radius:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/radius.log"]
      rdp:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/rdp.log"]
      rfb:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/rfb.log"]
      signature:
        enabled: false
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/signature.log"]
      sip:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/sip.log"]
      smb_cmd:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/smb_cmd.log"]
      smb_files:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/smb_files.log"]
      smb_mapping:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/smb_mapping.log"]
      smtp:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/smtp.log"]
      snmp:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/snmp.log"]
      socks:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/socks.log"]
      ssh:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/ssh.log"]
      ssl:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/ssl.log"]
      stats:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/stats.log"]
      syslog:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/syslog.log"]
      traceroute:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/traceroute.log"]
      tunnel:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/tunnel.log"]
      weird:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/weird.log"]
      x509:
        enabled: true
        var.paths: ["/opt/zeek/logs/current/x509.log"]
        # Set custom paths for the log files. If left empty,
        # Filebeat will choose the paths depending on your OS.
        #var.paths:
    
  6. Restart Filebeat to apply the configuration and confirm your Zeek logs are now properly ingested into Elasticsearch and available for analysis in Kibana.
    sudo systemctl restart filebeat

Simple Kibana Queries

Once Zeek logs are flowing into Elasticsearch, we can write some simple Kibana queries to analyze our data. Let’s convert some of our previous sample threat hunting queries from Splunk SPL into Elastic KQL. Try taking each of these queries further by creating relevant visualizations using Kibana Lens.

Connections To Destination Ports Above 1024

event.module:zeek AND event.dataset:zeek.connection AND destination.port>1024

Query Responses With NXDOMAIN

event.module:zeek AND event.dataset:zeek.dns AND dns.response_code:NXDOMAIN

Expired Certificates

event.module:zeek AND event.dataset:zeek.x509 AND file.x509.not_after < now

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8 thoughts on “Zeekurity Zen – Part VIII: How to Send Zeek Logs to Elastic”

  • Hi, I followed the steps mentioned in your blog to send zeek logs to elastic. I installed zeek version 4.0.7 and filebeat version 7.17.5. Elastic search and kibana version is 7.15.0. Filebeats is unable to send zeek logs to elastic under the category event.module : “zeek”. Rather logs are visible in discover tab in general.

    @timestamp:
    Jul 26, 2022 @ 08:56:48.537
    agent.ephemeral_id:
    a330a046-34d5-48a0-8a57-c24ba0d97fe4
    agent.hostname:
    bakhtawar
    agent.id:
    5542248b-ad82-4666-be57-6cb13db685de
    agent.name:
    bakhtawar
    agent.type:
    filebeat
    agent.version:
    7.17.5
    container.id:
    ssl.log
    ecs.version:
    1.12.0
    host.architecture:
    x86_64
    host.containerized:
    false
    host.hostname:
    bakhtawar
    host.id:
    fd55a894765441258c780e102d780210
    host.ip:
    10.0.2.5, fe80::9b4:1ec:5e3a:c4c4
    host.mac:
    08:00:27:0e:7f:66
    host.name:
    bakhtawar
    host.os.codename:
    focal
    host.os.family:
    debian
    host.os.kernel:
    5.15.0-41-generic
    host.os.name:
    Ubuntu
    host.os.platform:
    ubuntu
    host.os.type:
    linux
    host.os.version:
    20.04.3 LTS (Focal Fossa)
    input.type:
    filestream
    log.file.path:
    /opt/zeek/logs/current/ssl.log
    log.offset:
    10,392
    message:

    However, when I view the logs under event module zeek, it shows no results. Can you please tell why is it showing this abnormal behaviour? Thankyou.

    • Hi Bakhtawar,

      Elastic Stack requires the cluster to be at the same or higher version than any connecting Filebeats. So you’ll either need to upgrade your Elasticsearch cluster to 7.17.5 or user an older Filebeat 7.15.0 to match.

      Hope that helps!
      Eric

          • Hi, this is what I get after running sudo filebeat setup -e command.

            ********************************************************************************************************************
            2022-07-28T11:47:15.098+0500 INFO instance/beat.go:665 Home path: [/usr/share/filebeat] Config path: [/etc/filebeat] Data path: [/var/lib/filebeat] Logs path: [/var/log/filebeat]
            2022-07-28T11:47:15.098+0500 INFO instance/beat.go:673 Beat ID: 0a75a7d7-6c6b-442b-990d-6f322342b7cd
            2022-07-28T11:47:15.108+0500 INFO [beat] instance/beat.go:1014 Beat info {“system_info”: {“beat”: {“path”: {“config”: “/etc/filebeat”, “data”: “/var/lib/filebeat”, “home”: “/usr/share/filebeat”, “logs”: “/var/log/filebeat”}, “type”: “filebeat”, “uuid”: “0a75a7d7-6c6b-442b-990d-6f322342b7cd”}}}
            2022-07-28T11:47:15.108+0500 INFO [beat] instance/beat.go:1023 Build info {“system_info”: {“build”: {“commit”: “9023152025ec6251bc6b6c38009b309157f10f17”, “libbeat”: “7.15.0”, “time”: “2021-09-16T03:16:09.000Z”, “version”: “7.15.0”}}}
            2022-07-28T11:47:15.108+0500 INFO [beat] instance/beat.go:1026 Go runtime info {“system_info”: {“go”: {“os”:”linux”,”arch”:”amd64″,”max_procs”:6,”version”:”go1.16.6″}}}
            2022-07-28T11:47:15.109+0500 INFO [beat] instance/beat.go:1030 Host info {“system_info”: {“host”: {“architecture”:”x86_64″,”boot_time”:”2022-07-28T08:39:52+05:00″,”containerized”:false,”name”:”bakhtawar”,”ip”:[“127.0.0.1/8″,”::1/128″,”10.0.2.5/24″,”fe80::9b4:1ec:5e3a:c4c4/64″,”172.18.0.1/16″,”172.17.0.1/16″,”fe80::42:cdff:fee4:b028/64″,”172.19.0.1/16″,”fe80::42:dff:fe0f:acc1/64″,”fe80::f429:e2ff:fe92:9230/64″,”fe80::349b:a2ff:feb2:ceb5/64″,”fe80::18b7:62ff:feb5:98d4/64″],”kernel_version”:”5.15.0-41-generic”,”mac”:[“08:00:27:0e:7f:66″,”02:42:be:e2:76:55″,”02:42:cd:e4:b0:28″,”02:42:0d:0f:ac:c1″,”f6:29:e2:92:92:30″,”36:9b:a2:b2:ce:b5″,”1a:b7:62:b5:98:d4″],”os”:{“type”:”linux”,”family”:”debian”,”platform”:”ubuntu”,”name”:”Ubuntu”,”version”:”20.04.3 LTS (Focal Fossa)”,”major”:20,”minor”:4,”patch”:3,”codename”:”focal”},”timezone”:”PKT”,”timezone_offset_sec”:18000,”id”:”fd55a894765441258c780e102d780210″}}}
            2022-07-28T11:47:15.109+0500 INFO [beat] instance/beat.go:1059 Process info {“system_info”: {“process”: {“capabilities”: {“inheritable”:null,”permitted”:[“chown”,”dac_override”,”dac_read_search”,”fowner”,”fsetid”,”kill”,”setgid”,”setuid”,”setpcap”,”linux_immutable”,”net_bind_service”,”net_broadcast”,”net_admin”,”net_raw”,”ipc_lock”,”ipc_owner”,”sys_module”,”sys_rawio”,”sys_chroot”,”sys_ptrace”,”sys_pacct”,”sys_admin”,”sys_boot”,”sys_nice”,”sys_resource”,”sys_time”,”sys_tty_config”,”mknod”,”lease”,”audit_write”,”audit_control”,”setfcap”,”mac_override”,”mac_admin”,”syslog”,”wake_alarm”,”block_suspend”,”audit_read”,”38″,”39″,”40″],”effective”:[“chown”,”dac_override”,”dac_read_search”,”fowner”,”fsetid”,”kill”,”setgid”,”setuid”,”setpcap”,”linux_immutable”,”net_bind_service”,”net_broadcast”,”net_admin”,”net_raw”,”ipc_lock”,”ipc_owner”,”sys_module”,”sys_rawio”,”sys_chroot”,”sys_ptrace”,”sys_pacct”,”sys_admin”,”sys_boot”,”sys_nice”,”sys_resource”,”sys_time”,”sys_tty_config”,”mknod”,”lease”,”audit_write”,”audit_control”,”setfcap”,”mac_override”,”mac_admin”,”syslog”,”wake_alarm”,”block_suspend”,”audit_read”,”38″,”39″,”40″],”bounding”:[“chown”,”dac_override”,”dac_read_search”,”fowner”,”fsetid”,”kill”,”setgid”,”setuid”,”setpcap”,”linux_immutable”,”net_bind_service”,”net_broadcast”,”net_admin”,”net_raw”,”ipc_lock”,”ipc_owner”,”sys_module”,”sys_rawio”,”sys_chroot”,”sys_ptrace”,”sys_pacct”,”sys_admin”,”sys_boot”,”sys_nice”,”sys_resource”,”sys_time”,”sys_tty_config”,”mknod”,”lease”,”audit_write”,”audit_control”,”setfcap”,”mac_override”,”mac_admin”,”syslog”,”wake_alarm”,”block_suspend”,”audit_read”,”38″,”39″,”40″],”ambient”:null}, “cwd”: “/home/bakhtawar”, “exe”: “/usr/share/filebeat/bin/filebeat”, “name”: “filebeat”, “pid”: 19178, “ppid”: 19177, “seccomp”: {“mode”:”disabled”,”no_new_privs”:false}, “start_time”: “2022-07-28T11:47:14.170+0500”}}}
            2022-07-28T11:47:15.109+0500 INFO instance/beat.go:309 Setup Beat: filebeat; Version: 7.15.0
            2022-07-28T11:47:15.110+0500 INFO [esclientleg] eslegclient/connection.go:100 elasticsearch url: http://localhost:9200
            2022-07-28T11:47:15.110+0500 INFO [publisher] pipeline/module.go:113 Beat name: bakhtawar
            2022-07-28T11:47:15.146+0500 INFO beater/filebeat.go:117 Enabled modules/filesets: zeek (dhcp, smb_cmd, snmp, tunnel, files, intel, ntlm, dns, irc, mysql, ocsp, x509, notice, smb_mapping, socks, ssl, dce_rpc, dnp3, http, radius, rfb, ssh, weird, connection, dpd, ntp, rdp, signature, smb_files, kerberos, modbus, pe, sip, smtp, traceroute, capture_loss, ftp, stats, syslog), ()
            2022-07-28T11:47:15.182+0500 INFO [esclientleg] eslegclient/connection.go:100 elasticsearch url: http://localhost:9200
            2022-07-28T11:47:15.184+0500 INFO [esclientleg] eslegclient/connection.go:273 Attempting to connect to Elasticsearch version 7.15.0
            ILM policy and write alias loading not enabled.
            Template loading not enabled.

            Index setup finished.
            Loading dashboards (Kibana must be running and reachable)
            2022-07-28T11:47:15.185+0500 INFO kibana/client.go:167 Kibana url: http://localhost:5601
            2022-07-28T11:47:17.080+0500 INFO kibana/client.go:167 Kibana url: http://localhost:5601
            2022-07-28T11:47:18.100+0500 INFO [add_cloud_metadata] add_cloud_metadata/add_cloud_metadata.go:101 add_cloud_metadata: hosting provider type not detected.
            2022-07-28T11:48:35.142+0500 INFO instance/beat.go:848 Kibana dashboards successfully loaded.
            Loaded dashboards
            2022-07-28T11:48:35.142+0500 WARN [cfgwarn] instance/beat.go:574 DEPRECATED: Setting up ML using Filebeat is going to be removed. Please use the ML app to setup jobs. Will be removed in version: 8.0.0
            Setting up ML using setup –machine-learning is going to be removed in 8.0.0. Please use the ML app instead.
            See more: https://www.elastic.co/guide/en/machine-learning/current/index.html
            2022-07-28T11:48:35.142+0500 INFO [esclientleg] eslegclient/connection.go:100 elasticsearch url: http://localhost:9200
            2022-07-28T11:48:35.143+0500 INFO [esclientleg] eslegclient/connection.go:273 Attempting to connect to Elasticsearch version 7.15.0
            2022-07-28T11:48:35.144+0500 INFO kibana/client.go:167 Kibana url: http://localhost:5601
            2022-07-28T11:48:35.170+0500 WARN fileset/modules.go:425 X-Pack Machine Learning is not enabled
            2022-07-28T11:48:35.195+0500 WARN fileset/modules.go:425 X-Pack Machine Learning is not enabled
            Loaded machine learning job configurations
            2022-07-28T11:48:35.195+0500 INFO [esclientleg] eslegclient/connection.go:100 elasticsearch url: http://localhost:9200
            2022-07-28T11:48:35.197+0500 INFO [esclientleg] eslegclient/connection.go:273 Attempting to connect to Elasticsearch version 7.15.0
            2022-07-28T11:48:35.201+0500 INFO [esclientleg] eslegclient/connection.go:100 elasticsearch url: http://localhost:9200
            2022-07-28T11:48:35.203+0500 INFO [esclientleg] eslegclient/connection.go:273 Attempting to connect to Elasticsearch version 7.15.0
            2022-07-28T11:48:35.253+0500 INFO [modules] fileset/pipelines.go:133 Elasticsearch pipeline loaded. {“pipeline”: “filebeat-7.15.0-zeek-dhcp-pipeline”}
            2022-07-28T11:48:35.299+0500 INFO [modules] fileset/pipelines.go:133 Elasticsearch pipeline loaded. {“pipeline”: “filebeat-7.15.0-zeek-dns-pipeline”}
            2022-07-28T11:48:35.358+0500 INFO [modules] fileset/pipelines.go:133 Elasticsearch pipeline loaded. {“pipeline”: “filebeat-7.15.0-zeek-http-pipeline”}
            2022-07-28T11:48:35.403+0500 INFO [modules] fileset/pipelines.go:133 Elasticsearch pipeline loaded. {“pipeline”: “filebeat-7.15.0-zeek-ssl-pipeline”}
            2022-07-28T11:48:35.463+0500 INFO [modules] fileset/pipelines.go:133 Elasticsearch pipeline loaded. {“pipeline”: “filebeat-7.15.0-zeek-connection-pipeline”}
            2022-07-28T11:48:35.463+0500 INFO cfgfile/reload.go:262 Loading of config files completed.
            Loaded Ingest pipelines
            *********************************************************************************************************************

            Can you please figure out any abnormal behaviour in this output?

  • Hi Eric,

    How would you do some of the other Splunk Queries in Zeek/Kibana? I’m having a hard time trying to do it in Kibana:

    This one for example in Splunk:
    TOP 10 SOURCES BY BYTES SENT
    Recommended visualization: Statistics view

    index=zeek sourcetype=zeek_conn
    | stats values(service) as Services sum(orig_bytes) as B by id.orig_h
    | sort -B
    | head 10
    | eval MB = round(B/1024/1024,2)
    | eval GB = round(MB/1024,2)
    | rename id.orig_h as Source
    | fields Source B MB GB Services

    or even this simple one:
    TOP 10 DESTINATIONS BY NUMBER OF CONNECTIONS
    Recommended visualization: Column Chart

    index=zeek sourcetype=zeek_conn
    | top id.resp_h
    | head 10

    Any help would be greatly appreciated.
    Thanks

    • Hi kdz,

      I suppose I should update that post with the Elastic equivalents. 🙂

      To the specific questions you asked, try this:

      Top 10 Sources by Bytes Sent
      1. In Kibana, navigate to Analyze -> Visualize Library and click on “Create visualization.”
      2. Click on “Lens.”
      3. In the top left, click on “Add filter” and add a filter for event.dataset: zeek.connection.
      4. For the visualization type select “Table.”
      5. In the right-side menu of Table options, configure “Rows” to include: “Top values” of source.ip” and “Top values of network.protocol.” You can adjust how many “Top” values you want to show for each of these values. If you just want overall top 10, you’d configure source.ip to be 10 and network.protocol to be 1.
      6. In the same menu of Table options, configure “Metrics” to include “Sum of source.bytes.” You can change the “Value format” to “Bytes (1024)” and adjust the number of “Decimals” to your liking.

      Top 10 Destinations by Number of Connections
      1 – 3: Same steps as above.
      4. For the visualization type select “Bar vertical.”
      5. In the right-side menu of options, configure “Horizontal axis” to include “Top values of event.dataset.”
      6. In the same menu of options, configure “Vertical axis” to include “Count of Records.”
      7. In the same menu of options, configure “Break down by” to include “Top values of destination.ip.”

      Give those a try and see if they work for you.

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